Physical Science International Journal <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Physical Science International Journal (ISSN:&nbsp;2348-0130) </strong>publishes original research articles, review articles and short communications, in all areas of Physics, Chemistry and Earth Sciences. This is a quality controlled, peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Physical Science International Journal en-US Physical Science International Journal 2348-0130 Effect of Primary Radio Climatic Variables on Tropospheric Surface Radio Refractivity Over 3 Stations in Nigeria <p>This study investigates the effect of primary radio climatic variables on the tropospheric surface radio refractivity across three stations (Makurdi (7.7322° N, 8.5391° E), Jos (9.8965° N, 8.8583° E) and Lagos (6.5244° N, 3.3792° E) in Nigeria. Two years (January 2008-December 2009) primary radio climatic variables data (temperature, pressure and relative humidity) obtained from the archive of the Tropospheric Data Acquisition Network (TRODAN) of the Centre for Atmospheric Research (CAR), which is an activity centre of the Nigeria National Space Research and Development Agency (NASDRA) was used for this study. The measurement was made at 30 minutes interval for a complete 24 hours cycle. The results obtained establish the variation of temperature and relative humidity to refractivity across the region.</p> A. I. Kareem K. F. Olaseinde K. A. Aminu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-19 2019-10-19 1 10 10.9734/psij/2019/v23i430159 Diurnal, Seasonal and Annual Variation of Microwave Radio Refractivity Gradient over Akure, South West Nigeria <p>In this study, four years in-situ measurements of atmospheric parameters (pressure, temperature and relative humidity) were carried out. The measurement was by placing an automatic weather station at five different heights: ground surface, 50, 100, 150 and 200 m respectively on a 220 m Nigeria Television Authority TV tower in Akure, South Western Nigeria. The four years Data collected (January 2007 to December 2009 and January to December 2011) were used to compute radio refractivity and its gradient. The local effect of a location/ region cannot but looked into when designing effective radio link, hence the diurnal, seasonal and annual variations of the radio refractivity gradient were studied. Results showed that refractivity gradient steadily increases inthe hour of 8:30 and 9:30 to 18:00 during dry season throughout the years investigated, and decreases two hours in the rainy season than the dry season. The record shows that at 50 m altitude, the maximum and minimum values are 158 N-unit/km around 14:30 and - 286 N-unit/km around 13:30 to 14:00 hrs, LT during the dry and rainy season respectively. Seasonally, refractivity gradient is steeper with greater variability in the dry season months than in the wet season months.</p> Adekunle Titus Adediji Joseph Babatunde Dada Moses Oludare Ajewole ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-01 2019-11-01 1 11 10.9734/psij/2019/v23i430161 Relativistic Properties of a Lagrangian and a Hamiltonian in Quantum Theories <p>Relativistic properties of a Dirac Lagrangian density are compared with those of a Dirac Hamiltonian density. Differences stem from the fact that a Lagrangian density is a Lorentz scalar, whereas a Hamiltonian density is a 00-component of a second rank tensor, called the energy-momentum tensor. This distinction affects the form of an interaction term of a Dirac particle. In particular, a tensor interaction term of a Dirac Lagrangian density transforms to a difference between a vector and an axial vector of the corresponding Hamiltonian density. This outcome shows that fundamental principles can prove the V-A attribute of weak interactions. A further analysis supports these results. Inherent problems of the electroweak theory are discussed.</p> Eliahu Comay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-21 2019-11-21 1 9 10.9734/psij/2019/v23i430162 Radiological Survey of Oil and Gas Wastes and its Health Risks in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study is radiometric survey of oil and gas wastes and its health risks in Niger Delta region of Nigeria.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> This study was purely an experimental work which involves collection of samples and laboratory analysis.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of the Study:</strong> This study was carried out at oil and gas company waste stream facilities and waste pipe market within Niger Delta region between June 2018 and May, 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Sixteen samples (4 drill cuttings, 4 pipe scales, 2 sludges and 6 produced water) were randomly collected from four waste streams in six locations within the oil and gas production facilities and used pipe market. These samples were taken to the laboratory, prepared following the ISO procedure and packaged in a porcelain bottle, sealed and kept for twenty eight days in order to ensure secular equilibrium between <sup>238</sup>U, <sup>232</sup>Th and their progenies and counted with high purity Germanium detector (HPGe). The activity concentration of all the radionuclides were used to determine the radiological health risks using mathematical models.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The lowest and highest specific activity concentrations&nbsp; of <sup>226</sup>Ra, <sup>238</sup>U , <sup>232</sup>Th&nbsp; and <sup>40</sup>K, in solid wastes are 5.28±1.08 and 25727.75 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup>, 3.61±0.76 and 23021.73±1041.58 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup>, 2.40±0.56 and 21468.25±1125.57 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup> and 35.31±2.38 and 1527.73 ±86.60 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup> respectively. In the liquid waste, the lowest and highest activity concentration of <sup>238</sup>U, <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>40</sup>K are 0.34±0.15 and 1.11±0.28 Bql<sup>-1</sup>, 0.63±0.17 and 1.06±0.18 Bql<sup>-1</sup> and 9.60±0.66 and 14.20 ±1.04 Bql<sup>-1</sup> respectively. <sup>226</sup>Ra was below detectable limit in the liquid waste except in one sample (CZI). Downhole pipe scales recorded the highest activity concentration of all the radionuclides. Surface pipe scale also recorded very high activity concentration of all the radionuclides. The radiological health risk parameters assessed from the activity concentration of these radionuclide were all above the safe reference levels in downhole pipe scales and surface pipe scales while they are within the safe values in other samples. The estimated Exposure rate for both solid and liquid wastes were higher than the recommended reference level of 600 µRh<sup>-1</sup> and the associated dose rate was also higher than reference level.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The result of this work revealed that downhole and surface pipes from oilfield commonly used in the construction of buildings and domestic overhead tank-stands are associated with high levels of ionizing radiation which may be detrimental to human health and the environment.</p> C. P. Ononugbo G. O. Avwiri J. I. Ekpo Y. E. Chad-Umoren ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-17 2019-12-17 1 13 10.9734/psij/2019/v23i430163 Analytical Solution of the Complex Polymer Equation Systems via the Homogeneous Balance Method <p>In this article, we solve analytically the nonlinear Doubly Dispersive Equation (DDE) in (1+1)-D by the homogeneous balance method, introduced to investigate the strain waves propagating in a cylindrical rod in complex polymer systems. The linear dispersion relation plays important role in connecting the frequency of the emitted nonlinear waves with the wave number of the ablating laser beam affecting the polymers with their characteristic parameters. In accordance with the normal dispersion conditions, the resulting solitary wave solutions show the compression characters in the nonlinearly elastic materials namely Polystyrene (PS) and PolyMethylMethAcrylate (PMMA). The ratio between the estimated potential and kinetic energies shows good agreement with the physical situation, and as well in making comparisons with the bell-shaped model conducted in the literature.</p> Aly M. Abourabia Yasser A. Eldreeny ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-19 2019-12-19 1 8 10.9734/psij/2019/v23i430164 Hubble Constant Tension in Terms of Information Approach <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The purpose of this work is to formulate the theoretically justified information approach to analyze different methods of measuring Hubble’s constant, and to verify their advantages and disadvantages.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Mechanical &amp; Refrigeration Consultation Expert, between June 2019 and November 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Due to the fact that any measurement model contains a certain amount of information about the studied object, comparative uncertainty is introduced, by which the least achievable relative uncertainty when measuring the Hubble constant is calculated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The experimental results of measuring the Hubble constant presented in the scientific literature are analyzed using the proposed information approach.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The information approach can be considered as an additional look at the Hubble constant tension. Most likely, this will help to understand the current situation and identify possible specific ways to solve it.</p> Boris Menin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-26 2019-12-26 1 15 10.9734/psij/2019/v23i430165 A Study on Rain Rate Prediction of Southwestern Nigeria <p>Rainfall parameters can be utilized to investigate the effect of climate change through scientific methods. However, data on rainfall rate exceeded for a fraction of an average year is grossly unavailable over Nigeria’s climate, thereby diminishing the capability of existing models to adequately estimate the effect of degradation due to rain. Hence, more accurate estimation is required for better predictions. Rainfall volume data for six different locations in the south-western region of Nigeria were obtained for rain rate computation using Semire and Rosmiwati model. The curve-fitted Cumulative Distribution Functions were compared with the ITU-R rain rate model (Recommendation P.837-6) and compensation function was obtained using error analysis while the performance was evaluated with respect to existing models using Chi-square, and Percentage Error and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) metrics. The outcome of this study can be adopted for better understanding of spatial rainfall intensity in this region and other climatic zones of similar rainfall characteristics.</p> Folasade Abiola Semire Adeyanju Adekunle Robert Olayimika Abolade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-14 2020-01-14 1 12 10.9734/psij/2019/v23i430166 The Standard Model vs. Physical Facts <p>Dynamical sectors of the Standard Model of particle physics are critically analyzed. It is proved that<br>quantum electrodynamics, quantum chromodynamics, and the electroweak theory are inconsistent<br>with fundamental physical principles. More than two examples apply to each of these theories, and<br>any of these examples substantiate the unacceptable status of the relevant theory. Unfortunately,<br>the mainstream particle physics literature ignores this situation and glorifies the Standard Model<br>as an excellent scientific theory.</p> E. Comay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-14 2020-01-14 1 12 10.9734/psij/2019/v23i430167 Analysis of the Simulation Results of Three Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Cycle Models <p>The CO<sub>2</sub> (carbon dioxide) circulation models referred by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) show that the increase of atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> by 240 GtC (Gigatonnes of carbon) from 1750 to 2011 is totally anthropogenic in nature, which corresponds to the permille value of about -12.5‰, but the observed value is only -8.3‰. The author’s improved 1DAOBM-3 CO<sub>2</sub> circulation model shows that the anthropogenic CO<sub>2</sub> amount in 2011 is only 73 GtC, satisfying the observed atmospheric permille values from 1750 to 2017. The CO<sub>2</sub> circulation between the ocean and the atmosphere has increased the amount of atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> by natural CO<sub>2</sub> 197 GtC from the ocean, and this explains why the net uptake rate is only 1.9 GtC yr<sup>-1</sup>. Together with the anthropogenic amount of 73 GtC, the total increase is 270 GtC by 2017, corresponding to the observed atmospheric CO<sub>2 </sub>concentration. The simulations for 1000 GtC emissions by 2100 have been carried out by three models, including 1DAOBM-3, Bern2.5CC, and the mean model of 15 circulation models (called Joos 2013). The residence time of 1DAOBM-3 is 16 years for anthropogenic CO<sub>2</sub> impulse, the same as for the radiocarbon decay time. The decay time of 1DAOBM-3 for the impulse function is about 600 years meaning the residence time of about 150 years only. These values are much shorter than the residence times of two other models, which show that 25±9‰ of any anthropogenic CO<sub>2</sub> is still found in the atmosphere after 1,000 years. The reasons have been analyzed. The advantage of 1DAOBM-3 over the other models is that its results are in line with the oceanic and atmospheric observations from 1750 to 2017 but the future simulations include uncertainties due to ocean and biosphere uptake rate models.</p> Antero Ollila ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-20 2020-01-20 1 19 10.9734/psij/2019/v23i430168